⇦ Back to France

France is a country located in Western Europe. It is the largest country in the European Union and has a diverse landscape, ranging from mountains to beaches. In this lesson, we will explore the physical and political geography of France, including its location, climate, topography, and major cities.


France is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and the English Channel. It is also surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The capital city of France is Paris, which is located in the north-central part of the country.


The climate in France varies depending on the region. The northern part of the country has a temperate climate with mild winters and cool summers. The southern part of the country has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. The mountainous regions of France have a colder climate with heavy snowfall in the winter.


France has a diverse topography with mountains, plains, and coastal areas. The highest point in France is Mont Blanc, which is located in the French Alps and stands at 4,810 meters tall. The Rhone River runs through the southeastern part of the country, while the Seine River runs through Paris. The coastline of France is over 3,400 kilometers long and includes popular tourist destinations such as the French Riviera.


France is divided into 18 regions, each with its own unique characteristics. The northern region of Normandy is known for its historic landmarks and beautiful coastline. The western region of Brittany is known for its Celtic heritage and rugged coastline. The southeastern region of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur is known for its sunny beaches and picturesque villages. The central region of Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes is known for its stunning mountain ranges and ski resorts.

Major Cities

France has several major cities, including Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, and Nice. Paris is the capital city of France and is known for its iconic landmarks such as the Eiffel Tower and the Louvre Museum. Marseille is the second-largest city in France and is located on the Mediterranean coast. Lyon is known for its historic architecture and gastronomy, while Toulouse is known for its aerospace industry. Nice is a popular tourist destination on the French Riviera.


France is a diverse country with a rich history and culture. Its physical and political geography plays a significant role in shaping its unique characteristics. By understanding the geography of France, we can gain a deeper appreciation for this beautiful country.

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2. French History and Culture ⇨